E-OBS data access

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This is the download page for the daily gridded observational dataset for precipitation, temperature, sea level pressure and global radiation in Europe called E-OBS. For questions regarding E-OBS, please contact us at eca@knmi.nl.

Actual version and update policy


Version Release date Period covered Modification
24.0e November 2021 1950-01-01 - 2021-06-30 An additional quality control check has been performed on each of the ensemble members of the relative humidity grid. In areas with a low station density, unphysically low values of humidity might appear and all gridded values below 5% were set to missing before the ensemble mean and ensemble spread were derived. This mirrors the quality check performed on the station data.
Similarly, the gridded values of each of the global radiation ensemble members have been put through the same quality control procedure which is applied to the station data.
New stations and series have been included for Latvia. Continued monthly, half-yearly and yearly updates for Germany, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Norway, Slovenia, Finland, Ireland, Estonia, Sweden, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Italy (Emilia-Romagna), Montenegro, Belgium, France, Denmark, UK and the regional meteorological service of Catalonia (Spain). Wind speed is available from 1980 onwards, all other elements from 1950 onwards.
The full ensemble (changed to 20 members for all elements) can be made available on request.
23.1e March 2021 1950-01-01 - 2020-12-31 E-OBS v23.1e has been extended with relative humidity fields (abbreviation HU). Global radiation is now available from 1950-01-01 onwards. The full ensemble (100 members for temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure and relative humidity, 10 for radiation) can be made available on request.
New series have been included for Ukraine. Precipitation series for Serbia have been shifted by 1 day since 2009. Continued monthly, half-yearly and yearly updates for Germany, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Norway, Slovenia, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, France, Denmark, UK and the regional meteorological service of Catalonia (Spain). More detailed information can be found on the page comparing versions 23.0e and 22.0e.

Note that on 30 March 2021 all v23.0e files have been replaced with v23.1e. This replacement affects only the temperature datasets for the period Jun-Dec 2020 over an area in Northern France.

Note that on 3 August 2021 wind speed (abbreviation FG, starting 1980-01-01, 20 ensemble members) has been added and relative humidity has been back-extended for the period 1950-1979.
22.0e December 2020 1950-01-01 - 2020-06-30 The full ensemble (100 members for temperature, precipitation and sea level pressure, 10 for radiation) can be made available on request.
New series and updates have been included for Russia, France and Calabria (Italy). Some series in Scandinavian countries that were not provided by their own national meteorogical services have been removed. Precipitation series in Norway have been shifted by one day due to an error in the processing of these data in E-OBSv21.0e. Continued monthly, half-yearly and yearly updates for Germany, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Norway, Slovenia, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, France, Denmark, UK and the regional meteorological service of Catalonia (Spain). More detailed information can be found on the page comparing versions 22.0e and 21.0e.

Note that on 22 April 2021 relative humidity has been added from 1980 onwards. These files are the same as for v23.1e, except that the period Jul-Dec 2020 is missing.

Note that on 3 August 2021 wind speed has been added. These files are the same as for v23.1e, except that the period Jul-Dec 2020 is missing.
pre1950 September 2020 1920-01-01 - 1949-12-31 Dataset with daily values for temperature (minimum, mean and maximum) and precipitation sum from 1920 to the end of 1949. This dataset has a research status and will therefore not be updated regularly. Although some effort has gone into increasing the station density, especially for the years 1920 and 1921, there are periods and areas in the domain for which the station density is low. For this first version, the quality control has been minimal due to constraints on the resources. The combination of low station density and minimal quality control makes that unrealistic values can be expected at the outer edge of the domain and in areas where an outlier is in a data-poor area in the interior. There are a few examples of this for the precipitation dataset.
21.0e May 2020 1950-01-01 - 2019-12-31 The full ensemble (100 members for temperature, precipitation and sea level pressure) can be made available on request.
Radiation has been released on 7 September 2020.
New series and updates have been included for Georgia, Ukraine, Belarus and Poland. Monthly, half-yearly and yearly updates are continued for Germany, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Norway, Slovenia, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, France, Denmark, UK and the regional meteorological service of Catalonia (Spain). More detailed information can be found on the page comparing versions 21.0e and 20.0e.

Note that on 3 August 2021 wind speed has been added. These files are the same as for v23.1e, except that the period Jan-Dec 2020 is missing.
20.0e October 2019 1950-01-01 - 2019-07-31 E-OBS v20.0e has been extended with global radiation fields (abbreviation QQ, starting 1980-01-01). The full ensemble (100 members for temperature, precipitation and sea level pressure, and 10 members for radiation) can be made available on request.
New series and updates have been included for Italy, Croatia, Norway and Russia. Monthly, half-yearly and yearly updates are continued for Germany, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Norway, Slovenia, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, France, Denmark, UK and the regional meteorological service of Catalonia (Spain).

E-OBS datafiles

E-OBS comes as an ensemble dataset and is available on a 0.1 and 0.25 degree regular grid for the elements daily mean temperature TG, daily minimum temperature TN, daily maximum temperature TX, daily precipitation sum RR, daily averaged sea level pressure PP, daily averaged relative humidity HU, daily mean wind speed FG and daily mean global radiation QQ. They cover the area: 25N-71.5N x 25W-45E. The data files are in NetCDF-4 format. The Global 30 Arc-Second Elevation Data Set (GTOPO30), a global raster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with a horizontal grid spacing of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 kilometer) developed by USGS is used for the elevation file as well.

The ensemble dataset is constructed through a conditional simulation procedure. For each of the members of the ensemble a spatially correlated random field is produced using a pre-calculated spatial correlation function. The mean across the members is calculated and is provided as the "best-guess" fields. The spread is calculated as the difference between the 5th and 95th percentiles over the ensemble to provide a measure indicate of the 90% uncertainty range. As of E-OBSv24.0e, all elements now have a 20-member ensemble. For more details see Cornes et al. (2018) and the guidance on how to use ensemble datasets.

The dataset for relative humidity is based on the in-situ data holdings of the ECA&D dataset similar as the other E-OBS datasets. The gridding method used for this element is the same as the one used for temperature, precipitation and sea level pressure. To remove some of the skewness in the data, the relative humidity values (and the background field used in the gridding method) were transformed by \(\sqrt{100-hu}\) prior to fitting. This also ensures that all interpolated values, when converted back to the unit of %, are equal or smaller than 100%.

The dataset for wind speed is also based on the in-situ data holdings of the ECA&D dataset. The daily mean wind speed dataset uses various covariates to compute an monthly background grid. These covariates are: latitude, longitude, ERA5 800 hPa monthly averaged windspeed, altitude, slope, topographic position index (TPI, the difference between a central pixel and the mean of its surrounding cells), distance to coast and surface roughness length. For wind speed and some of the covariates, a log-transform is applied. The daily anomaly are then gridded using kriging regression. Through bootstrapping, a 20-member ensemble is created.

The global radiation dataset not only uses ground-based in-situ observations, but, in order to properly estimate spatial variability, it also incorporates the CERES global radiation satellite derived product and includes elevation and distance-to-coast as spatial predictors. On daily time-scales the global radiation is mainly dependent on cloud patterns. This makes daily global radiation spatially and temporally highly variable. The in-situ observations are interpolated using Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS). The dimension reduced satellite data is used to interpolate between the in-situ observations, where the in-situ observations are the 'anchor points'.

The E-OBSpre1950 dataset is based on a considerably sparser network of data than the datasets that cover the post 1950 period despite some data rescue efforts in the ERA4CS project INDECIS and a query at the European NMHSs. The combination of a sparse dataset and possible outliers in the data makes that unrealistic values can be expected at the outer edge of the domain and in areas where an outlier is in a data-poor area in the interior. The precipitation dataset suffers from this issue more than the temperature dataset.

A page with several known issues in the E-OBS dataset has been provided.

Version 24.0e Ensemble mean Ensemble spread Elevation
0.1 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ all elements
0.25 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ all elements
Version 23.1e Ensemble mean Ensemble spread Elevation
0.1 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ all elements
0.25 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ all elements
Version 22.0e Ensemble mean Ensemble spread Elevation
0.1 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ all elements
0.25 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ TG TN TX RR PP HU FG QQ all elements
Version pre1950 Ensemble mean Ensemble spread Elevation
0.1 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR TG TN TX RR all elements
0.25 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR TG TN TX RR all elements
Version 21.0e Ensemble mean Ensemble spread Elevation
0.1 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR PP FG QQ TG TN TX RR PP FG QQ all elements
0.25 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR PP FG QQ TG TN TX RR PP FG QQ all elements
Version 20.0e Ensemble mean Ensemble spread Elevation
0.1 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR PP QQ TG TN TX RR PP QQ all elements
0.25 deg. regular grid TG TN TX RR PP QQ TG TN TX RR PP QQ all elements

Access to smaller chunks

Follow this link if you want to download E-OBS in about 15 year chunks.

Meta data input stations

Files with meta data about the input stations are available:
TG (v24.0e) TN (v24.0e) TX (v24.0e) RR (v24.0e) PP (v24.0e) HU (v24.0e) FG (v24.0e) QQ (v24.0e)
TG (v23.1e) TN (v23.1e) TX (v23.1e) RR (v23.1e) PP (v23.1e) HU (v23.1e) FG (v23.1e) QQ (v23.1e)
TG (v22.0e) TN (v22.0e) TX (v22.0e) RR (v22.0e) PP (v22.0e) HU (v22.0e) FG (v22.0e) QQ (v22.0e)
TG (v21.0e) TN (v21.0e) TX (v21.0e) RR (v21.0e) PP (v21.0e) FG (v21.0e) QQ (v21.0e)
TG (v20.0e) TN (v20.0e) TX (v20.0e) RR (v20.0e) PP (v20.0e) QQ (v20.0e)

Datafiles for 2021

Follow this link if you want to download gridded datafiles for 2021. They are released on a monthly basis. These files will be replaced with every monthly update and removed after the next full update of the E-OBS dataset.

Citation and acknowledgement

Whenever you publish research or applications based on these gridded data products, you should include the following acknowledgement and citations.

Ensemble version:
"We acknowledge the E-OBS dataset from the EU-FP6 project UERRA (https://www.uerra.eu) and the Copernicus Climate Change Service, and the data providers in the ECA&D project (https://www.ecad.eu)"
"Cornes, R., G. van der Schrier, E.J.M. van den Besselaar, and P.D. Jones. 2018: An Ensemble Version of the E-OBS Temperature and Precipitation Datasets, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 123. doi:10.1029/2017JD028200"Website

Terms of use

The ECA&D/E-OBS data policy applies. These observational data are strictly for use in non-commercial research and non-commercial education projects only. Scientific results based on these data must be submitted for publication in the open literature without any delay linked to commercial objectives. If you are unsure about the terms "commercial", "research", and "education", please contact the ECA&D staff at eca@knmi.nl for clarification.

News

25 November 2021
E-OBSv24.0e has been released
18 November 2021
Monthly E-OBS updates released
15 October 2021
Monthly E-OBS updates released
14 September 2021
Monthly E-OBS updates released up to August 2021
6 September 2021
Values below 5% have been set to missing in the ensemble mean files for relative humidity in E-OBSv23.1e
3 August 2021
Several known issues in the E-OBS dataset have been described
3 August 2021
Daily mean wind speed has been added to the E-OBS dataset from 1980 onwards
3 August 2021
Relative humidity has been back-extended for the period 1950-1979
3 August 2021
PET-PM and UTCI have been back-extended for the period 1950-1979
29 July 2021
18 June 2021
14 June 2021
Monthly E-OBS update released
1 June 2021
The file for the scPDSI index has been replaced. The calibration period which is used to calculate this index now applies to the complete interval over which data is available.