State-of-the-European-climate: June 2020

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Event in June 2020

Heatwave in northern Europe

Temperatures over Europe deviated quite substantially from the 1981-2010 average in June 2020, with a pattern largely opposite to that in May, associated with a change in the prevailing atmospheric circulation. Temperatures were well above average over Scandinavia and much of eastern Europe, under the influence of anticyclonic conditions. Norway had its second warmest June in records dating back to 1900. Sweden recorded one of its highest June temperatures (34.0°C on 25 June) since records began in 1889, while Helsinki and other locations in Finland recorded their warmest June in records starting in 1961.

Heavy rain and Floods in central and eastern Europe

In June 2020, large parts of Europe saw above average precipitation compared to the 1981-2010 average. In the second half of June in several countries extreme rainfall led to flooding, including Romania, the Czech Republic and Poland. In several places more than 100 mm in a short time period (within 24 hours) occurred. Strong thunderstorms could easily develop along the boundary between very warm air in the eastern half and much cooler air in the western part of Europe. This boundary can be nicely seen in both the weathermaps as satellite images. In the monthly totals we can even see sums above 200 mm in some regions ranging from the northern Alps into Poland.



Figure 1: Weather analyses on 15 June 12 UTC (left) and 29 June 2020 12 UTC (right) (source: KNMI)



Figure 2: Satellite images from 15 June (left) and 29 June 2020 (source: NASA World view)

Specific climate indicators for June 2020

Lots of summer days in the north

The heat in northern Europe was not only due to a few extremely hot days, but rather to a great number of days with high daily maximum temperature. This can be seen in the number of summer days (Fig. 3). Especially parts of Sweden and Finland noted up to and above 10 summer days more than normal and locally more than half of all June days were summer days, which is unusual for this latitude. Parts of northern Central Europe and northern European Russia also had more summer days than normal, while many other parts of Europe had much less.



Figure 3: SU: Summer days (number of days with daily maximum temperature of at least 25°C) in June 2020 (left) and anomaly w.r.t. 1981-2010 (right)



Even more outstanding was the number of days, when the daily maximum temperature was among the highest 10% for that time of year (Fig. 4). All or almost all June days were within that high temperature range in Norway, Sweden and parts of western Finland.



Figure 4: TX90p: Days with TX > 90th percentile (warm day-times, number of days when the daily maximum temperature is higher than on 90% of the corresponding calendar days (+/-2 days) in the 1981-2020 period) in June 2020 and anomaly w.r.t. 1981-2010 (right)

Heavy precipitation days in much of Europe

The distribution of heavy rain within Europe in June 2020 can be highlighted by the number of heavy precipitation days (Fig. 5) given by thresholds of daily totals of 10 or 20mm. Many parts of Europe had at least 1 or 2 days of heavy precipitation (at least 10mm), but some parts of France, the United Kingdom, southeastern Central Europe, Italy and the Balkans even 4 or 5 days. Some places registered daily totals of 20mm or more. In contrast, western Norway, which normally receives much heavy rain, but also northern Sweden, had a deficit of heavy precipitation days that month.







Figure 5: R10mm: Heavy precipitation days and R20mm: Very heavy precipitation days (number of days with at least 10mm / 20mm of daily precipitation) in June 2020 (left) and anomaly w.r.t. 1981-2010 (right)

The weather in June 2020

Temperature deviations and extremes



Average temperatures in June were exceptionally above normal (1981-2010) in Scandinavia, northern Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium (Fig. 7, middle panel). In parts of Scandinavia average temperatures were more than 5 °C above normal (Fig. 6, middle), which can be explained by the positive radiation anomaly in this region (Fig. 14, right). Maximum and minimum temperatures in these countries were above average as well. Minimum temperatures were also above average in parts of western Europe, particularly Great Britain and France, and in a band over eastern Europe, from the Baltic States to Greece. Remarkably, in this band the maximum temperatures were much below average.



Figure 6: June 2020 minimum (left), average (middle), and maximum (right) temperature differences from reference period 1981-2010 (E-OBS)

Highest maximum temperatures occurred in southern Spain and Portugal (Fig. 8, right panel). Although this could be expected given the southern position of these countries, the values were much above average (Fig. 9, right). Lowest minimum temperatures occurred over Scandinavia (Fig. 8, left), but these were still much higher than normal (Fig. 9, left).



Figure 7: Areas with exceptional low and high monthly averaged minimum temperature (left), mean temperature (middle), and maximum temperature (right) in June 2020 (Based on E-OBS). The qualifications "exceptionally above (below) average", much above (below) average, slightly above (below) average and normal relate to the percentile ranges >90 (<10), 75-90 (10-25), 60-75 (25-40) and 40-60 as calculated from the climatological period 1981-2010.



Figure 8: Lowest minimum temperature (TNn, left), and highest maximum temperature (TXx, right) in June 2020. (Based on E-OBS)



Figure 9: Areas with exceptionally low temperatures of the coldest night (TNn, left), and exceptionally warm temperatures of the warmest day (TXx, right) in June 2020 (Based on E-OBS)



Evolution of the European land-surface temperature

Figure 10 (left panel) shows the European-averaged temperature from 1950 onward, where blue bars show temperatures which are below the 1981-2010 average and red bars above this mean value. The green bar is the provisional 2020 estimate, based on data until the end of June and climatological means for the remaining months. The grey bars in the panel indicate the estimated uncertainties which take into account the errors introduced by spatial interpolation over areas without observation stations, inhomogeneities in the temperature data that result from station relocations / changes in measurement instruments etc., and biases due to urbanisation, as documented in Van der Schrier et al. (2013) and Chrysanthou et al. (2014). The uncertainties tell us that although we are not 100% certain about the ranking of individual years, the overall positive trend since the 1980s is very pronounced.

The right panel of Figure 10 shows the daily temperature, averaged over Europe, for the past 12 months.



Figure 10: European land surface temperature: annual anomalies with the current year in green. The grey bands show the uncertainty in the averaged temperature (left). Daily anomalies with respect to the seasonal cycle until the end of June 2020 (right). (Based on E-OBS)

Precipitation

Precipitation in June was above normal (1981-2010) in most of Europe, except in northern Scandinavia and the Iberian Peninsula (Fig. 12, left panel). Large precipitation amounts within one day occurred in the northern part of Italy (Fig. 11, middle panel).



Figure 11: Monthly average precipitation sums over Europe and highest 1-day (RX1day) and 5-day sums (RX5day) in June 2020 (Based on E-OBS).



Figure 12: Areas with exceptional amounts of precipitation per month (RR sum, left), maximum in 1 day (RX1day, middle) and maximum over 5 days (RX5day, right) in June 2020 (Based on E-OBS)





Figure 13: Precipitation fraction in June with respect to 1981-2010 per year. Top row: Northwest Europe, Central Europe, Northeast Europe. Bottom row: Southwest Europe, Region definitions, Southeast Europe. (Based on E-OBS)

Radiation and Cloudiness

Radiation in June was above normal (1983-2005) in northern Europe, and below normal in middle and most of southern Europe (Fig. 14, right panel). The highest positive radiation anomalies coincide, as expected, with the lowest cloud cover anomalies (Fig. 15, right). Cloud cover anomalies in western Europe are generally negative over land and positive over sea.



Figure 14: Monthly map of surface incoming shortwave radiation (left) and its anomaly (right, with respect to 1983-2005) (METEOSAT Seviri/Mviri product, source CM SAF)





Figure 15: Monthly maps of cloud cover (left) and its absolute anomaly (right, with respect to 1982-2009) (AVHRR, source CM SAF)

About the Copernicus State of the European Climate

Monthly and yearly State of the European Climate bulletins are prepared for audience of mainly non-meteorologists/climatologists interested in impact of weather and climate. In these bulletins, the main features of the most recent calendar month is shown, with a focus on extremes and significant deviations from climatology. The information is provided within their historical context, and includes references to addional information. The bulletin is based on Copernicus products, but also contains information from other sources as appropriate.

News

28 September 2020
NGCD v20.09 released
28 September 2020
28 September 2020
Monthly E-OBS update released
24 September 2020
A new daily E-OBS dataset for the period 1 Jan 1920 - 31 Dec 1949 has been released as E-OBSpre1950 for temperature (minimum, mean, maximum), precipitation amount and sea level pressure. This dataset has a research status.
7 September 2020
Global radiation for E-OBSv21.0e and for the monthly E-OBS updates has been released
25 August 2020
13 August 2020
Monthly E-OBS update released
29 July 2020
28 July 2020
Monthly E-OBS update released
29 June 2020
16 June 2020
Monthly E-OBS update released
9 June 2020
A long-term monthly precipitation reconstruction for Fennoscandia is available as NGCD_rec
28 May 2020
E-OBS v21.0e released
26 May 2020
Monthly E-OBS update released
29 April 2020
22 April 2020
22 April 2020
Monthly E-OBS update released
31 March 2020
NGCD v20.03 released
30 March 2020
Monthly E-OBS update released
24 February 2020
24 February 2020
Monthly E-OBS update released
23 January 2020
21 January 2020
Monthly E-OBS update released
21 January 2020
19 December 2019
12 December 2019
Monthly E-OBS update released